The history of Interior Furniture Design; as a profession and educational background
In the design and physical planning of a building, building component of the spin part in or commonly known as the furniture interior design ranks after the most recent execution of architecture, civil engineering, mechanical and electrical. However, when a person enters a building that is so, then the figure of the interior design is the most visible invisible first and then arouse the impression or image of itself on the minds of the beholder. Contemporary Furniture 'interior design' has been transformed into one of the professions within the scope of the process of designing a building.
Beginning of this description, one must first be submitted limitations of anfurniture interior designer. Congress of the International Federation of Furniture Interior Desainers set in 1983 in Hamburg (summary) the following limits: Professional furniture interior designer is someone who has expertise via formal educational qualification, experience and skills acquired thus able to identify, investigate and solve problems creatively, and generate spin-off interior of the building interior (inside) buildings, with the aim to improve the quality of life, protecting the health of , safety and welfare of the community.
Activities of the interior design profession is always held in the context of architecture. So is popularly said that the profession of interior design is the sibling of the profession of architecture. Even in other countries, it is called Interior Architecture (United States) and Arkhitektur Innen (German).
At this time, quite a lot of universities in our country, public and private, which organizes educational expertise, especially in Bandung and Jakarta, in addition to several other big cities in Indonesia. In this regard, including the University Computer Indonesia, which shall administer through its Furniture Interior Design Department under the auspices of the Faculty of Design and Arts. On the chance this time, let us look briefly into the past, tracing the historical development of furniture interior design from the past, and then born as an independent profession today.
Before the Age of 20 professions 'Furniture Interior Design' or 'Furniture Interior Decoration' or 'Home Furniture Decoration' not yet known, although the interior or the component parts of a building has long been an integral part of the physical environment of everyday human.
At that time all over Europe and America that play a role designing the furniture interior of the house is the furniture-makers (cabinet maker or ebeniste), or coated materials furniture traders, traders, merchants and even the curtains or furniture are in sales activities as well as providing free advice to customers how to organize the content and the inside of their homes. Principles offered are limited to 'decorate' not 'create' let alone construct. This role was carried out without background training or formal education, and only based on talent plus experience and competence who later achieved in the long term.
Social and economic development of rapid in the early 20th century encouraged the emergence of more of this kind of furniture interior decorator. Use of this decorator services although expensive, still growing, especially among people considered to reflect the level of a particular status because of containing the influence and prestige.
Decorators tend to be consultative role includes the selection of textile materials, flooring, wall coverings, furniture and accessories the room lights as well as proposing the overall color scheme of the room. Rarely plays an interior decorator specify the structure or construction of buildings and space concept, something that was considered to be allotted task of an architect. This is what causes women initially dominated profession.
One of the decorator who became a pioneer of the furniture interior design profession in America is Elsie de Wolf (1865 - 1950), completing his first works in 1897-8 for his home alone in New York which was then at once catapulted his name because it was considered unique and not follow the pattern or previously customary habits.
Elsie de Wolf was inspired to bring more 'light, air and comfort' to the interior of the house work. In 1905 Stanford White, a prominent architect in New York to give the project through contract work to Elsie de Wolf to work on the interiors of buildings in New York City's Colony Club.
In the history of design, it is noted as the first public building interiors professionally planned. And presumably can also be said that through this event the birth of a new profession, the profession of Furniture Interior Design.
That happened 97 years ago!
Intrigued by this development, a group of other professional interior designer and then emerged in America, especially during the year 1920-1930, the majority of them women. 1913 Nancy McClelland forming the first interior planning unit in department stores (department stores) Wanamakers in America. America's first and possibly the first in the world. 1924 Eleanor McMilland McMilland Inc. inaugurated. , The first professional furniture interior design firm in history. The firm is to survive until the 1990s. Then there are also a Ruby Ross Wood and Frances Elkins who in his work combining traditional elements with elements of Colonial European Americans.
After the pilot by Elsie de Wolf, a similar development also took place starting in other European countries, especially in England, France and then Germany. In the UK, among others, appears the name of Betty Joel (1896-1985), Syrie Maughm (1879-1955), Lady Sybil Colefax (1875-1950) and John Fowler (1906-1977), in addition to Emilio Terry from Italy, Jean-Michel Frank in France and many others. The pilot was trying to escape from the rigid pattern of the previous standard in the application of interior components and the selection of antique furniture that usually have to follow a 'rule' that had been applied strictly traditional.
The design concept developed to continue the update that started earlier: Custom designs trend to be simple, elegant and uses the colors lighter. Similarly, the freedom to use new materials not previously used prevalent and is unthinkable in the interior of the building: materials for the chair of paint, glass materials for walls, carpets and wall coverings with more modern furniture designs and more modest.
Then there were also blend the concepts of design (design idiosyncretic), combines contemporary elements with the elements of the past, elements of the location of one with elements from other locations. Thus decorator names already mentioned above, and many others, has been pioneering creation of the interior design profession. But in general they do not have a background in training and formal education so that they carry in their activity diletante atmosphere.
It was only in 1931 in the United States established the American Institute of Interior decorators who later transformed into The American Society of Furniture Interior Designers. This is the first institution acts as the accrediting agencies and try to formalize the interior design profession both in the profession and practice approaches in formal education culprit.
Provisions to be decided is widely followed across the U.S. border and adopted by many other countries. The next development occurred more widely and evenly to all countries in the Americas, Europe and Asia also includes countries that are developing, including Indonesia. More and more universities that have courses of Interior Design Study programs in addition to other design fields.
To conclude from this brief description can be concluded that through education and formal training, experience and skills possessed, in their professional activity was present as an observer of Interior Designers, researchers and makers of creative initiatives with other disciplines contribute to create a physical environment for the community to be able to achieve prosperity in life. (Set-SAT;from various sources).